Seamless tube and pipe
Sandvik 3R60 - AISI 316L


Current Issue at: 30/07/2008 16.52.07. Cancels all previous editions



General description


Sandvik 3R60 is an austenitic chromium-nickel steel with minimum 2.5% molybdenum and a low carbon content.

3R60 is also supplied in a variant for the urea industry, 3R60 Urea Grade. See data sheet S-1843-ENG.



Chemical composition (nominal) %



C
max.
SiMnP
max.
S
max.
CrNiMo
0.0300.41.70.0400.01517.5132.6



Standards


Sandvik Grade: 3R60
ASTM: 316L, 316
UNS: S31603, S31600
EN: 1.4435, 1.4436
EN Name: X 2 CrNiMo 18-14-3, X 3 CrNiMo 17-13-3
W Nr.: 1.4435, 1.4436
DIN: X 2 CrNiMo 18 14 3, X 5 CrNiMo 17 13 3
SS: 2353, 2343
AFNOR: Z 2 CND 17.13
BS: 316S13
JIS: SU316LTP, 316TP, SU316LTB, 316TB
Product standards
ASTM A213, A269 and A312
JIS G3459
JIS G3463
EN 10216-5
BS 3605, 3606
DIN 17456, 17458
NFA 49-117*, 49-217*
SS 14 23 53, 14 23 43

Approval
JIS Approval No. SE9402 for Stainless Steel Tubes

* Mo content 2.00-2.40%




Forms of supply


Seamless tube and pipe- Finishes and dimensions
Seamless tube and pipe in 3R60 is supplied in dimensions up to 260 mm outside diameter in the solution annealed and white-pickled condition or solution annealed in a bright-annealing process.

Other forms of supply
We can also deliver other product forms from stock in a grade corresponding to 316L mainly:
  • Welded tube and pipe
  • Fittings and flanges
  • Bar steel
  • Filler metal for welding


    Mechanical properties


    For tube and pipe with wall thickness greater than 10 mm (0.4 inch) the proof strength may fall short of the stated values by about 10 MPa (1.4 ksi).

    At 20C
    Metric units
    Proof strength
    Rp0.2a
    MPa
    min.
    Rp1.0a
    MPa
    min.
    Tensile strength
    Rm
    MPa
    Elong.
    Ab
    %
    min.
    Elong.
    A
    2"
    %
    min.
    Hardness
    HRB


    max.
    220250515-69040c3590

    At 68F
    Imperial units
    Proof strength
    Rp0.2a
    ksi
    min.
    Rp1.0a
    ksi
    min.
    Tensile strength
    Rm
    ksi
    Elong.
    Ab
    %
    min.
    Elong.
    A
    2"
    %
    min.
    Hardness HRB


    max.
    323675-10040c3590

    1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
    a) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
    b) Based on L0 = 5.65 S0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-section area.
    c) NFA 49-117, 49-217 with min 45% can be fulfilled on request.

    Impact strength
    Due to its austenitic microstructure, Sandvik 3R60 has very good impact strength both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.

    Tests have demonstrated that the steel fulfils the requirements according to the European standards prEN 13445-2 (UFPV-2) ( (min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -270 oC (-455 oF) and prEN 10216-5 (min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -196 oC (-320 oF).

    At high temperatures
    Metric units
      Temperature, C
      Proof strength
      Rp0.2
      MPa
      min.
      Rp1.0
      MPa
      min.
      50
      100
      150
      200
      250
      300
      350
      400
      450
      500
      550
      600
      200
      180
      165
      150
      140
      135
      130
      125
      120
      120
      115
      110
      230
      215
      195
      180
      170
      160
      155
      150
      145
      145
      140
      135

    Imperial units
      Temperature, F
      Proof strength
      Rp0.2
      ksi
      min.
      Rp1.0
      ksi
      min.
      200
      400
      600
      800
      1000
      26
      21
      19
      18
      17
      31
      26
      23
      21
      20

    Creep strength
    Temperature, C
    F
    Creep-rupture strength
    10 000 h
    MPa
    approx.
    (ISO-values)

    ksi
    approx.
    100 000 h
    MPa
    approx.

    ksi

    approx.
    550
    575
    600
    625
    650
    675
    700
    725
    750
    1020
    1065
    1110
    1155
    1200
    1245
    1290
    1335
    1380
    255
    214
    172
    137
    108
    83
    64
    49
    37
    37.0
    31.0
    24.9
    19.9
    15.7
    12.0
    9.3
    7.1
    5.4
    177
    137
    108
    86
    64
    46
    33
    25
    18
    25.7
    19.9
    15.7
    12.5
    9.3
    6.7
    4.8
    3.6
    2.6



    Physical properties


    Density..........................................................8.0 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3

    Thermal conductivity
    Temperature, CW/m CTemperature, FBtu/ft hF
    20
    100
    200
    300
    400
    500
    600
    14
    15
    17
    18
    20
    21
    23
    68
    200
    400
    600
    800
    1000
    1100
    8
    8.5
    10
    10.5
    11.5
    12.5
    13

    Specific heat capacity
    Temperature, CJ/kg CTemperature, FBtu/lb F
    20
    100
    200
    300
    400
    500
    600
    485
    500
    515
    525
    540
    555
    575
    68
    200
    400
    600
    800
    1000
    1100
    0.11
    0.12
    0.12
    0.13
    0.13
    0.13
    0.14

    Thermal expansion, mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6)
    Temperature, CPer CTemperature, FPer F
    30-100
    30-200
    30-300
    30-400
    30-500
    30-600
    30-700
    16.5
    17
    17.5
    18
    18
    18.5
    18.5
    86-200
    86-400
    86-600
    86-800
    86-1000
    86-1200
    86-1400
    9.5
    9.5
    10
    10
    10
    10.5
    10.5

    Modulus of elasticity, (x103)
    Temperature, CMPaTemperature, Fksi
    20
    100
    200
    300
    400
    500
    200
    194
    186
    179
    172
    165
    68
    200
    400
    600
    800
    1000
    29.0
    28.2
    26.9
    25.8
    24.7
    23.5



    Corrosion resistance


    Sandvik 3R60 has good resistance in:
    Stress corrosion cracking
    Austenitic steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This may occur at temperatures above about 60C (140F) if the steel is subjected to tensile stresses and at the same time comes into contact with certain solutions, particularly those containing chlorides. Such service conditions should therefore be avoided. Conditions when plants are shut down must also be considered, as the condensates which are then formed can develop conditions that lead to both stress corrosion cracking and pitting.

    Intergranular corrosion
    Sandvik 3R60 has a low carbon content and therefore better resistance to intergranular corrosion than steels of type AISI 316. The TTC-diagram, Figure 1, shows the result of corrosion testing for 24 hours in boiling Strauss solution (12% sulphuric acid, 6% copper sulphate). The resistance to grain boundary attack is much better for AISI 316L than for AISI 316. This is an advantage in complicated welding operations.


    Figure 2. TTC-diagram for Sandvik 3R60 (AISI 316L) and AISI 316.

    Pitting and crevice corrosion
    Resistance to these types of corrosion improves with increasing molybdenum content. Sandvik 3R60, containing about 2.6% Mo, has substantially higher resistance to attack than these steels of type AISI 304 and also better resistance than ordinary AISI 316/316L steels with 2.1% Mo.

    Gas corrosion
    Sandvik 3R60 can be uses in
  • air up to 850C (1560F)
  • steam up to 750C (1380F)

    Creep behaviour should also be taken into account when using the steel in the creep range.

    In flue gases containing sulphur, the corrosion resistance is reduced. In such environments the steel can be used at temperatures up to 600-750 C (1100-1380 F) depending on service conditions. Factors to consider are whether the atmosphere is oxidising or reducing, i.e. the oxygen content, and whether impurities such as sodium and vanadium are present.



    Heat treatment


    The tube are delivered in heat treated condition. If additional heat treatment is needed after further processing the following is recommended.

    Stress relieving
    850-950C (1560-1740F), cooling in air

    Solution annealing
    1000-1100C (1830-2010F), rapid cooling in air or water.



    Welding


    The weldability of Sandvik 3R60 is good. Suitable welding methods are manual metal-arc welding with covered electrodes and gas-shielded arc welding with the TIG and MIG methods as first choice. Preheating and post-weld treatment are not normally necessary.

    Since the material has low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion, welding must be carried out with a low heat input and with welding plans well thought out in advance so that the deformation of the welded joint can be kept under control. If, despite these precautions, it is foreseen that the residual stresses might impair the function of the weldment, we recommend that the entire structure be stress relieved. .

    As filler metals for gas-shielded arc welding we recommend wire electrodes and rods Sandvik 19.12.3.L, 19.12.3.LSi. In shielded metal-arc welding (SMAW) covered electrodes Sandvik 19.12.3.LR, 19.12.3.LRV or 19.12.3.LRHD are recommended. If flux cored arc welding is preferred, the electrodes 19.12.3.LT or 19.12.3.LVT should be used.



    Bending


    Annealing after cold bending is not normally necessary, but this point must be decided with regard to the degree of bending and the operating conditions. Heat treatment, if any, should take the form of stress relieving or solution annealing.

    Hot bending is carried out at 1100-850C (2010-1560F) and should be followed by solution annealing.



    Applications


    Sandvik 3R60 is used for a wide range of industrial applications where steels of type AISI 304 and 304L have insufficient corrosion resistance. Typical examples are: heat exchangers, condensers, pipelines, cooling and heating coils in the chemical, petrochemical, pulp and paper and food industries.